Oxidative stress is one of the common factors leading to age-related eye diseases in older adults. Factors such as high oxygen consumption, high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cumulative exposure to high-energy visible light in the eyes, lead to excessive generation of reactive oxygen species, hence triggering apoptosis of ocular cells and giving rise to ophthalmic diseases. Dietary supplements such as carotenoids, anthocyanins, and vitamins have antioxidant properties which may be of benefit in retaining better vision; thus, studies have been conducted to understand the role of dietary supplements in the treatment or prevention of ophthalmic diseases. While high concentration of carotenoids such as lutein and zeaxanthin decrease the risk of developing age-related macular disease, anthocyanins and vitamins play a role in the treatment and prevention of other ophthalmic diseases: saffron extract reduced intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients; bilberry extract prevented impairments in lenses and retina, as well as alleviate symptoms of dry eye disease; high concentration of beta-carotene may reduce the risk of developing cataract. Further studies with clinical measurements are required to investigate the effectiveness of antioxidants on visual function and ophthalmic diseases.
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